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**Chapter 1**

**Basic Physics-Units**

**The Big Idea**

Units identify what a specific number represents. For example, the number 42 can be used o represent 42

miles, 42 pounds, or 42 elephants! Without the units attached, the number is meaningless. Also, correct unit cancellation can help you find mistakes when you work out problems.

**Key Concepts**

• Every calculation and answer to a physics problem must include units. Even if a problem explicitly asks for a speed in meters per second (

*m*/*s*), the answer is 5 m/s, not 5.• When you’re not sure how to attack a problem, you can often find the appropriate equation by thinking about which equation will provide an answer with the correct units. For instance, if you are looking to predict or calculate a distance, use the equation where all the units cancel out, with only a unit of distance remaining.

• When converting speeds from one set of units to another, remember the following rule of thumb: a speed measured in

*mi*/*hr*is about a little more than double the value measured in*m*/*s*(*i.e.,*10 m/sof the speed in a certain set of units.

• If a unit is named after a person, it is capitalized. So you write “10 Newtons,” or “10 N,” but “10 meters,” or “10 m.”

• Your weight is simply the force of gravity on you, so pounds are just the English version of Newtons.

**Key Equations**

• 1 meter = 3.28 feet

• 1 mile = 1.61 kilometers

• 1 lb.(1 pound) = 4.45 Newtons

**An Example of unit conversion:**

20 m/s =? mi/hr

20 m/s(1 mi/1600 m) = .0125 mi/s

.0125 mi/s(60 s/min) = .75 mi/min

.75 mi/min(60 min/hr) = 45 mi/hr

**Calculator 101 –TI83**

•

**Arrow Keys:**Use the arrow keys to scroll around on the line that your typing your calculation anduse the DEL key to delete anything. Use the insert key (type 2

*nd*then DEL) to add something in.•

**Calculator only does what you tell it to:**The order of operation is as follows and in order:exponents, multiplication and division, adding and subtracting.

•

**Some useful tips:**The orange key in the upper left corner is very handy. If you hit this buttonfirst and then another key, the calculator will operate the command in orange above the key. Here

are some good ones

•

**[2nd]**then**[ENTER]**= ENTRY: the calculator will repeat the last line. If you want the one aboveit, do it twice. Etc.

•

**[2nd]**then**[(-)]**= ANS: the calculator will put in the answer from last calculation into your equation•

**Scientific Notation:**On the calculator the best way to represent 3 × 108 is to type in 3E8, whichmeans 3 times ten to the eighth power. You get the ‘E’ by hitting the

**[2nd]**then**[,]**.•

**Common Problems:***Student wants to divide*400

*by*2π, but types ‘400/2π’ into calculator. The calculator reads this as ‘ 400 divided by 2 and multiplied by π ‘. What you should do is either ‘400/(2π)’ or ‘400/2’ enter then ‘/π’ enter.

*Student wants multiply*12

*by the result of*365 − 90, but types in ‘12 ∗ 365 − 9’. The calculator multiplies 12 by 365

*then*subtracts 90. What you should do is type in ‘12 ∗ (365 − 90)’.

*Student types in a long series of operations on the calculator, hits enter and realizes the answer is not right.*Solution is to do one operation at a time. For example, instead of typing in ‘2

*E*3 ∗ 10/π+45 ∗ 7 − 5’. Type in 2

*E*3 ∗ 10, hit enter then hit ‘

*x*’ key then ’10, hit enter, etc. Note that Answer will automaticallyappear if start a line with an operation (like adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing’.

*Make sure you are in degree mode:*hit the ‘MODE’ key and then use the arrow to highlight ‘Degree’ and hit ENTER.

*Negative Exponents:*You must use the white ‘(-)’ key for negative exponents.

•

**Rounding:**Round your answers to a reasonable number of digits. If the answer from the calculatoris 1.369872654389, but the numbers in the problem are like21 m/s and 12 s, you should round off to

1.4. To report the full number would be misleading (i.e. you are telling me you know something to

very high accuracy, when in fact you don’t). Do not round your numbers while doing the calculation,

otherwise you’ll probably be off a bit due to the dreaded ‘round off error’.

•

**Does your answer make sense:**Remember you are smarter than the calculator. Check your answer to make sure it is reasonable. For example, if you are finding the height of a cliff and your answer is 0.00034 m. That can’t be right because the cliff is definitely higher than 0.34 mm. Another example, the speed of light is 3×108 m/s (i.e. light travels 300 million meters in one second). Nothing can go faster than the speed of light. If you calculate the speed of a car to be 2.4 × 1010 m/s, you know this is wrong and possibly a calculator typ-o.**Key Applications**

The late, great physicist Enrico Fermi used to solve problems by making educated guesses. For instance, say you want to

*guess*timate the number of cans of soda drank by everybody in San Francisco in one year. You’ll come pretty close if you guess that there are about 800,000 people in S.F., and that each person drinks on average about 100 cans per year. So, 80,000,000 cans are consumed every year. Sure, this answer is wrong, but it is likely not off by more than a factor of 10 (i.e., an “order of magnitude”). That is, evenif we guess, we’re going to be in the*ballpark*of the right answer. That is always the first step in working out a physics problem.*Pronunciation table for commonly used Greek letters*

• upper case

(a subscript zero, such as that found in “

*X*0” is often pronounced “naught” or “not”)**Units and Problem Solving Problem Set**

*‘Solving a problem is like telling a story.’*-Deb Jensen 2007

For the following problems and all the problems in this book, show the equation you are using before

plugging in the numbers, then show each and every step as you work down line by line to get the answer.

Equally important, show the units canceling at each step.

**Example:**

Problem: An 8

*th*grader is timed to run 24 feet in 12 seconds, what is her speed in meters per second?.**Solution:**

*D*= rt

12 ft =

*r*(12 s)*r*= 24 ft/12 s = 2 ft/s

*r*= 2 ft/s ∗ (1m/3.28 ft) = 0.61 m/s

1. Estimate or measure your height.

a. Convert your height from feet and inches to meters

b. Convert your height from feet and inches to centimeters (100 cm = 1 m)

2. Estimate or measure the amount of time that passes between breaths when you are sitting at rest.

a. Convert the time from seconds into hours

b. Convert the time from seconds into milliseconds (

*ms*)3. Convert the French speed limit of 140 km/hr into

*mi*/*hr*.4. Estimate or measure your weight.

a. Convert your weight in pounds on Earth into a mass in

*kg*b. Convert your mass from

*kg*into μ*g*c. Convert your weight into Newtons

5. Find the

*SI*unit for pressure (look it up on internet).6. An English lord says he weighs 12 stones.

a. Convert his weight into pounds (you may have to do some research online)

b. Convert his weight from stones into a mass in kilograms

7. If the speed of your car increases by 10 mi/hr every 2 seconds, how many

*mi*/*hr*is the speed increasing every second? State your answer with the units*mi*/*hr*/*s*.

9. 80 m + 145 cm + 7850 mm =

*X*mm. What is*X*?10. A square has sides of length 45 mm. What is the area of the square in mm2?

11. A square with area 49 cm2 is stretched so that each side is now twice as long. What is the area of the square now? Convert to m2

12. A spacecraft can travel 20 km/s. How many km can this spacecraft travel in 1 hour(h)?

13. A dump truck unloads 30 kilograms (

*kg*) of garbage in 40 s. How many*kg*/*s*are being unloaded?14. Looking at the units for Electric field (

*E*) in the table at the beginning of the chapter, what do you think the formula is for Force in an electric field?15. Estimate the number of visitors to Golden Gate Park in San Francisco in one year. Do your best to get an answer that is right within a factor of 10. Show your work and assumptions below.

16. Estimate the number of plastic bottles of water that are used in one year at Menlo.

**ANSWERS**

1. a. A person of height 5 ft.11 in. is 1.80 m tall b. The same person is 180 cm

2. a. 3 seconds = 1/1200 hoursb. 3

*x*103 ms3. 87.5 mi/hr

4. If the person weighs 150 lb. this is equivalent to 668 N

5. Pascals (Pa), which equals

*N*/*m*26. 168 lb., 76.2 kg

7. 7.5 mi/hr/s

8. a. 8.7 × 10−5 m/sb. 1.9 × 10−4 mi/hr

9. 89, 300 mm

10. 2025

*mm*211. 196

*cm*212. 72, 000 km/h

13. 0.7 5 kg/s

14.

*F*=*qE*15. Discuss in class

16. Discuss in class

add by : http://sharemyeyes.blogspot.com/

reference:

**Authors :**James Dann, James H. Dann

@CK-12 Foundation

CK-12 Foundation is a non-profit organization with a mission to reduce the cost of textbook materials

for the K-12 market both in the U.S. and worldwide. Using an open-content, web-based collaborative

model termed the “FlexBook,” CK-12 intends to pioneer the generation and distribution of high-quality

educational content that will serve both as core text as well as provide an adaptive environment for learning,

powered through the FlexBook Platform™.

Printed: March 23, 2011

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